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Definition of Tourism

The development of science and technology makes people always compete each other and make people busy with their own activity. The Activity that they do make the people frustrated, feel bored and stressed. To eliminate the stressed feeling, most people use their leisure time to refresh their feeling. One of the activities that people do is making a tour to a tourism object.

Generally, Indonesia has many potencies of tourism. The potency of tourism spreads in all districts in Indonesia. Every district of tourism offers different attraction to the visitors. Therefore the visitors want to come in that district, and also the tourism object has not been developing by government seriously.
Tourism
comes from the Latin word “tournus” which means journey, acting of going from one place to another place. The word “ tour” is defined as journey visiting several places and usually taken pleasure.

According to Pundit (1999), the meaning of the word “travel” is going on a journey to a particular place, usually by using some means of transportation. The function of transportation can be explained as follows.
First, going from place to place or visiting various places and countries for business or pleasure. Second, taking the journey through around or within a particular area. Third, going or cover particular distance to move a particular speed or in a particular way. Fourth, going from place to place as sales person as part of a business. Fifth, retaining its quality or freshness while being transported; to be transmitted or communicated; observing to scan an object or scan in the process of observing of film.

Therefore, terms or words can be combined as what people usually heard by the tour and travel. The tour and travel can be defines as the process of doing journey to a particular place for pleasure, education, business, adventure, and religion responsibilities.

According to the Law No.9 in 1990 about tourism, tour is travel activity or part of that activity that has done voluntarily and temporarily, to enjoy the tourism object and attractions.

According to Sculled (1992:12), tourism is the sum of operation, mainly of an economy nature, which directly related to the entry, stay and movement of foreigner inside certain country, city or region. And economy gives the restriction, so that is much more economical aspect, but is not showing explicitly, sociology, psychology or tourism geographical aspect.

Mathieson and Wall (1982) created a good working definition of tourism as the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their needs.

According to Spillane (1982:20) tourism is doing trip activity to get pleasure, satisfaction and knowledge and to cure illness, enjoy sport or res, carry out duty, making a devotional visit to a sacred place and others.

On the other hand, McIntosh and Gupta in Yoeti (1992:8) defines tourism as the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourist and other visitors.

According to two Swiss Scientific experts in tourism, Henniker and Kraft (1996:30), tourism is the sum of phenomena and relationship arising from the travel and stay of none resident, and so far they do not lead the permanent residence and are not connected with earning activity. Then, that definition accepted by the international of association of scientific expert in tourism.

Wahab (1993:106-107) and Yoeti stated that tourism is purposeful human activity that serve as a link between people either within one or some countries or beyond the geographical limits. It involves that temporary displacement of people to another region, country or continent for the satisfaction of varied need other than exercising a remunerated function.

Mc.Intosh (1995:10) stated that tourism is a composite of activities service and industry that deliver a travel experience, transportation, accommodation, eating, shopping, entertainment, activity and other hospital services available for industry or group that are away from home.

According to Leiper (1981:49),tourism as an open system of five elements interacting with broader environments, the human element, tourist, three geographical elements generating region, transit route and destinations region, and a economic element, the tourist industry.

According to Yoety (1991:21), tourism is a journey in a temporary time from a place to another place, which is not purpose for business oriented but it is not only perform to enjoy the journey for the sake or recreation oriented.

According to Hornby (2001:8) defined tourism is a journey in which a short stays are made at a number of places, and traveler finally return to his or her own place.

According to Chooper (1996:43) stated that tourism as the temporary movement to destination outside the normal home and work place, the activities undertaken during the stay and facilities created to cater for the needs of tourist.

From some of definitions of tourism above, actually the experts have the same point about tourism; they are only different in making definition of tourism. It has point that is travel from one place to another in order to get pleasure and satisfaction.

Now a days the scope of tourism has widened, it involves every aspect that can support the tourist to obtain the resources and the society, which the synergy among this factor will create a satisfactory service to the tourist. Due to this fact Hamallik (1978:¬¬ s14) states that tourism was the purpose to introduction the culture, the beautiful of nature and hospitality of Indonesia people. It was also purpose increase of society and to give chance to the local tourist to understand their own culture as well.



From the description above, the tourism give some advantages in society are:
1. To open the work opportunity
The development of tourism sector can give the opportunity to Indonesian, labor force. It can absorb many unemployed people for example when an investor wanted to mange a tourism object, they should prepare the facility that could support it, as hotel, art shop, and restaurant. These will create new job for the local settler.
2. To increase the local income
The local government will obtain income from the tourist object in the region. This income will also distribute to other sector in order to improve the life of society in this region.
3. To increase the national foreign exchange
By the income from the foreign tourist automatically this condition will give advantages to Indonesian government, the foreign currency will be us in the payment of international trade.
Besides the advantages, tourism can also bring bad impact to the Indonesian people. The followings are some disadvantages that are caused by the tourism:
1. The miss – management of a tourism object will ruin the nature of it environment for example : if there is a tourism object to built in the jungle, it requires a hotel so that the wood will be cut. This will disturb the harmony of jungle ecosystem.
2. There is possibility of losing the historical things. The historical things consider as precious many people interest to have it for the own. To obtain a personal profit one will try to steal the historical things.
3. There is shift of meaning on the purpose of performing the traditional ceremony in a certain place, for example : the worship to the god. But now some traditional ceremony holds only for the sake entertainment in order to give attraction to tourist.
The advantages above will give bad impact to our country and for the tourism it self. So if we want to build tourism object we must have a good planning in order to the tourism object will give big contribution to our country.
One thing that support the development of tourism is tourist, tourism and tourist is something that can not be separated the tourist could make a drop with some ways because by different reason. A trip is considering as tourism if it meets two conditions, they are:
1. It must be temporary
2. It has character of voluntary; it means that it is not caused by compulsory.
The people who are on holiday and make a tourism traveling to add the knowledge want to enjoy the nature. Therefore, the purpose of tourism traveling is to enjoy the trip in wide meaning. From a point of economic view of country that receives tourists, international tourists can be divided into two categories, they are:
1.
Real tourist or holidaymakers who do a trip for leisure.
2. The person who comes on be half of business or job, study and mission.



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4 Responses to Definition of Tourism By Expert

  1. Ahmad Says:
  2. Yes that's right bro, indeed people nowadays need more time for refreshing if not they are then gonna be crazy.. haha.. nice posting..

     
  3. mantap gan

     
  4. thank you all.. just share knowledge... :)

     
  5. 丘尚知 Says:
  6. thank you for your sharing, would you like to provide the reference for your citation of those definitions? Thank you so much. I am doing a project that collecting all definitions of tourism. Your blog is such a big help.

     
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